Hydrothermal liquefaction(HTL) is a medium-temperature, high-pressure thermo-chemical conversion of biomass into liquid fuels by processing in a hot, pressurized water environment for suﬃcient time to break down the solid bio polymeric structure to mainly liquid components, which produces a liquid product, known as crude bio-oil (bio fuel). HTL process operate at temperatures between 250-420oC and high pressures of 5-25 MPa and residence times is ~15 minutes then quickly cooled down to 70°C. Higher and Lower operating temperatures lead to High gas and liquid yields, respectively. Crude bio-oil has high calorific values of approximately 34-39 MJ/kg. The HTL process having high energy efficiency and consumes nearly 10-15% energy of total energy input, as heat energy is recycled between the heating and cooling of the process medium.
Advantages of HTL
- Water is an important reactant and catalyst in hydrothermal liquefaction, and thus the biomass can be directly converted without putting additional energy into drying step, as in the case of pyrolysis.
- This process is synonym of hydrous pyrolysis, but compared to pyrolysis HTL is carried out at lower temperatures and heating rates. It has low operating temperature, high energy eﬃciency and low tar yield compared to pyrolysis process. Crude bio-oil that contains approximately twice the energy density of pyrolysis oil. For this reason, HTL process gains much attention during last decades.
- A new generation of the HTL process is suitable for all kind of biomasses like municipal solid waste, agriculture waste, bio medical waste, manure, wood, compost and plant material along with waste from household, meat factories, dairy production and similar industries.
- The HTL process can convert biomass to crude bio-oil, which is sufficiently similar to fossil crude oil that a simple thermal upgrade and existing refinery technology can be employed to subsequently obtain most liquid fuels.
- The advantages of HTL process are its applicability for high-moisture-content biomass, use of lower temperatures, and high energy efficiency that drives the attention of researchers on the liquefaction process.
Nabros Energy Focus and Goals
Our pilot plant is ready and working on converting different biomass into bio crude oil. Our main focus is on heat exchanger design for optimum heat transfer, Effectiveness of Raw material feed pump, Pressure regulating method. We are working on higher efficiency and scalability of the HTL project.